Sunday, May 24, 2020

What Is Your Personal Leisure Identity - 930 Words

What is your personal Leisure Identity? Please describe. I have quite an interesting leisure identity as I work at a nursing home facilitating and engaging in leisure activities on a regular basis. Being apart of the recreation field I have found myself enjoying many of the activities I facilitate and am always introduced to may new ones as well. Apart from my work life, I enjoy going for walks on trails that are in wooded areas, socializing with my friends at coffee shops and cooking different varieties of foods with my boyfriend. As I was writing this answer, I found it difficult to decide what my leisure identity actually is. For the reason that I love my job and it just so happens I also get into the state of flow when I am engaging in these activities. What does your Leisure Identity mean in terms of relationships, who you spend your leisure time with, who you have come to know? Over the years, I have been apart of the recreation department at a variety of different organizations. I was able to meet many people who enjoy engaging in similar recreation activities as myself. We also share the passion of helping others in their journey to find their own leisure identity by introducing them to new hobbies and or improving on their previous enjoyments. Within the hospitality industry, I have also gained many valuable relationships with my peers that I see outside of work. What other kinds of experiences have your leisure identity opened up to you? When I wasShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Leisure Activities On Leisure Pursuits1709 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION Leisure is an important aspect of individuals’ daily lives that enhances life satisfaction, enriches mental and physical development, and improves relationships with family, friends, or significant others (Brightbill, 1961). In addition, Robert Stebbins (1992) created the concept of serious leisure to help explain how people dedicate their time and efforts towards their leisure and to explain the characteristics that reflect these participants’ seriousness in their leisure pursuits. ARead MoreRacial Identity And Ethnicity Identity1626 Words   |  7 Pageswhen I realized my identity of how I saw myself and how others saw me when I was a child. I examined my identity by my gender identity, racial identity, and my ethnicity identity. I describe my earliest memory of realizing my gender identity by remembering when I realized I was a woman. I discuss how I became to learn about my racial identity and ethnicity identity by going to school with various people. I then descri be how the aspects of my gender identity and racial identity did and did not influenceRead MoreSociological Concepts Essay728 Words   |  3 PagesAssignment Information and Rubric Below are guidelines to follow as you work on your socioautobiography assignment: * Papers should be in APA format, with a title page. * Papers should contain 3-4 pages of text, double-spaced (this does not include the title page). * Refer to at least six sociological concepts covered in the lectures or textbook reading. Highlight these concepts in boldface. * Connect your concepts to the TCOs. Indicate the TCOs covered in parentheses, as demonstratedRead More Essay examples1634 Words   |  7 Pagesknown as â€Å"demand collection system† that enables consumers to use the Internet to save money on a wide range of products and services while enabling sellers to generate incremental revenue. Using a simple and compelling consumer proposition of â€Å"name your price,† the consumer is in control of the product they wish to purchase. In the form of individual customer offers guaranteed by a credit card for a particular product or service at a price set by the customer and communicate that demand directlyRead MoreConsumerism And Consumerism1481 Words   |  6 Pagesanything that we think will yield satisfaction. This reductionist impulse creates an alienating force that depersonalizes people as means to goals, displaces God, and shapes our values. That which we fear losing the most can give us a good idea of what we value, which is why advertisers â€Å"are keenly aware of our insecurities. The movement away from consumerism begins by taking up our mantle as stewards of God’s good creation, consuming as needed and cultivating for the good of all humanity. I wouldRead MoreParental Control and the Internet836 Words   |  3 Pagescertain online encounters can be excessively detrimental for young impressionable minds. Perhaps the biggest threats though are cunningly hidden in seemingly reliable trustworthy websites. Identity theft, for example, may occur when unsuspecting child gives out personal information online. If someone’s identity is stolen, a thief can access to various accounts of his victim and take advantage of his prey in whatever way he wants. The whole family then suffers adverse consequences being responsibleRead MoreAnalysis Of Plato s Republic And Aristotle s Nicomachean Ethics Essay2075 Words   |  9 Pagesdiscovery. A place of reflection. Leisure, sport and recreation are culpable in cultivating thyself in preparation for true reflection, whose telos is knowledge of thyself. This paper will explore this notion of the journey to true reflection through various historical and present day ideologies. Context will be provided via personal experiences of each phase, as the yellow brick road, leading up to reflection. Only then, true discoveries of thyself can be uncovered. L eisure, sport, and recreation provideRead MoreCulture And Cultural Norms And Values2214 Words   |  9 PagesWhat is Culture and Identity? This assignment will analyse the different types of cultures in society, these cultures will include high culture, low culture and pop culture. This assignment will also look at different types of identities in relation to cultural norms and values, discuss the links between the media and leisure industries in relation to identity. According to (Kidd Teagle, 2002, p114) culture is discribed as the way of life of a social group including their values, norms, behaviourRead MoreCareer Progression And The Career Development795 Words   |  4 Pagesyou develop a plan that guarantees you don’t feel left behind when it comes to achieving your career goals. What is career progression? The concept of career progressing is closely tied to the idea of career development. Career development is the lifelong process of managing your circumstances in order to move forward to achieving your personal goals. It’s the management of your education, work and leisure activities in a way that helps you achieve the kind of future you want. As the definitionRead MoreThe Relationship Between Hospitality and Tourism Essay1647 Words   |  7 PagesHospitality and Tourism: Tourism and hospitality go hand in hand, the hospitality industry offer services like accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, recreation and leisure. Tourism is the activity by the tourists where they engage in travelling to destinations where they want to experience recreational and leisure activities and most of the time avails of accommodation, food and beverage. The hospitality industry is the supplier of the services for tourism. The meaning of hospitality is

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Presidential Election Of 1860 Essay - 1271 Words

In November of 1860, the presidential election was one of the most momentous in the history of the United States. The land was split between North and the South and was smoldering for almost a decade. The candidates for the presidential election of 1860 were Abraham Lincoln, Republican, John Breckinridge, Southern Democrat, John Bell, Constitutional Union, and Stephen Douglas, Northern Democratic. Abraham Lincoln was against the increase of slavery into the new territories. Lincoln did not receive one vote from the south, but he did win over 50% of the Electoral College votes so Lincoln won the presidency to become the 16th President of the United States. Abraham Lincoln was known as one of America’s greatest heroes because of his inconceivable impact on our nation and his unique appeal. Lincoln was a captain in the military and a lawyer all before becoming the 16th President of the United States. Lincoln was one of two U.S. presidents who was assassinated while in office. Li ncoln was also the president during the roughest part of American history, the Civil War. Lincoln was heavily in favor of abolishing slavery and so most of the citizens in the northern states of the U.S... On the other hand, the south had large plantations and favored slavery because the slaves worked for free and made plantation owners and other farmers a staggering amount of profit. The slaves were not treated as human beings; therefore, the slaves were mistreated. Slave owners often beat their slavesShow MoreRelatedThe Presidential Election Of 1860848 Words   |  4 PagesThe presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil war. By 1860, the nation had been divided mostly up to that point regarding questions of states’ rights and slavery in the territories. Southerners were outraged over the plan by abolitionist, John Brown, to start a slave rebellion at Harper Ferry, Virginia. This event garnered headlines all over the nation in newspapers and magazi nes. On the other hand, the Northern Republic seemed equally anger by the Supreme Court decisionRead MoreThe Impact Of The 1860 Presidential Election1442 Words   |  6 PagesAssess the influence of the 1860 presidential election as a cause of the American Civil War The 1860 presidential election of Abraham Lincoln greatly contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln, born in Kentucky on February 12, 1809, served as the sixteenth president of the United States. He was the very first Republican to serve as president, eventually leading the Union to victory during the civil war. Lincoln opposed the idea of the expansion of slavery but acknowledged thatRead MoreThe Kansas- Nebraska Act Essay1085 Words   |  5 Pagesgroups and Abolitionists. These groups created the Republican Party. The Republican Party unlike parties before it was a purely sectional party. The Republican Party made its first real stand during the election of 1856. During this election the Republican Party came close to winning the election by only taking the Northern states, this cemented the role of Republican Party as the successor of the Whig party and opponents to the Democrats. The slogan â€Å"Free soil, Free labor, and Free men â€Å"refersRead MoreAbraham Lincoln s Second Inaugural Address1070 Words   |  5 PagesConfederacy. Also during the war, Lincoln competed in the 1864 presidential election in which his leadership was challenged by George B. McClellan. This inaugural address was important at the time, and remains a relic of Abraham Lincoln’s powerful speaking ability. In the late 1850’s, tension were rising between the northern states and the southern states. These tensions began long ago, but continued to rise before the election of 1860. The main topic of debate at this time was slavery. SouthernRead MoreThe Presidential Selection Of 1860855 Words   |  4 PagesThe presidential selection of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil war. By 1860, the nation had been at odds mostly up to that point regarding questions of states’ rights and slavery in the territories. Southerners were livid over the preparation by an abolitionist, John Brown, to establish a slave uprising at Harper Ferry, Virginia. This event garnered headlines all over the nation in newspapers and magazines. On the other hand, the Northern Republic seemed equally infuriated by the SupremeRead MoreThe Election Of 1852 And Its Effect On The Growth And Development Of The United States943 Words   |  4 Pages1800’s, there were many presidential elections with all the candidates looking to fill the roles of their predecessors, George Washington and John Adams. All of the candidates looked to leave a positive, lasting impact on the growth and development of the United States. There were multiple candidates for each election, all with varying views on government and different issues to address during each election. The elections of 1852, 1856, 1860, and 1864 were all significant elections in the molding of theRead MoreLincoln-Douglas Debate Essay examples1458 Words   |  6 Pagesdecided the presidential election of 1860. The Lincoln Douglas debates were a series of several debates that took place all over the state of Illinois. In these debates, two men argued in order to express their beliefs and standpoints on certain issues, primarily slavery, in an attempt to be elected into a seat in the U.S. Senate. The two men that participated in these debates were Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. These debates not only primarily decided the outcome of the state election for SenateRead MoreThe Battle Of The American Civil War891 Words   |  4 PagesOn December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. Within six months, ten other states would follow. These eleven states would form the Confederacy. Southern secession was the first step leading to the American Civil War. This war was the bloodiest war in American history, killing roughly 600,000 American soldiers. The Civil War would have never happened if it wasn’t for the secession of the Southern states. Becaus e of Lincoln’s election, States’ rights, economicRead More Andrew Johnson Essay719 Words   |  3 PagesRepresentitives and one for following elections to retain his seat until 1853. While in the U.S. House, Johnson supported President Polk and his handling of the Texas and Oregon settlements and the Mexican War. Although hailing from a Southern state, Johnson was a staunch supporter of the Constitution over State’s Rights, a position which conflicted with many Southern legislators. Turning his sights back to state politics, Johnson won the 1853 Tennessee election and re election in 1855. Johnson’s star continuedRead MoreChapter 19 Outline: Perceptions on Slavery Essay1215 Words   |  5 Pagesslavery in peaceful manner eventually disappeared. By 1855, the territory of Kansas marked the beginning of violent disputes between proslavery and antislavery. Two years later, the Dred Scott decision caused even more tensions on the slavery problem. In 1860 the Republican party formed and nominated Lincoln for president who spoke much about the topic of slavery. All in all, the stage was being set for the civil war. I. Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries: a. Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes her

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Goals Of Youth Engagement Services - 865 Words

Many agencies, professional and government organizations, educational institutions, and advocacy groups provide a vast array of advice, materials, training, and other support, both for parents of young children and for teachers, caregivers, and directors working with young children and their families (Wardle 2013). Our communities provide resources for families and early care and education programs to support children’s development that are both local and web-based. As educators, it is important to inform families of these resources to help the development of our youth. One community resource to share with parents and to use as an early childhood professional to support children’s development is the local school districts, Youth Development Support Services: Youth Engagement Services. The goal of Youth Engagement Services (YES) is to empower their schools and district to meet the academic and social-emotional wellbeing of all students by providing support to plan, implement, monitor, and integrate the delivery of high quality and high impact educational and social-emotional programs ( Youth Engagement Services’ provide; after school, summer and out of school time programs, mentoring and character education services, youth voice and action opportunities, student, family, and community engagement, school culture and climate initiatives, intervention and prevention of tobacco, alcohol, other drug use, bullying and violence prevention, service learning; socialShow MoreRelatedAn Implementation Of A Community Intervention812 Words   |  4 Pagesfirst African American president statistics have shown how important the youth vote, especially the black youth vote, has made a great impact and shaped politics. In the past 2014 Midterm election the turnout of the youth vote (age 18-29) was the lowest in the past 4 decades (The Center of Information and Research and Civic Learning and Engagement, 2015). This intervention will seek to engage in a discourse with the Black youth community of Howard University’s 1st year undergraduate students to understandRead MoreThe Safety And Peace Promotion Research1293 Words   |  6 Pageselder’s workshop. Third part of the phase was key informant interviews that where the workshop interviews with twenty-nine key stakeholders. Phase four was community asset-mapping workshops for the youth, elders, adult and service providers. Fifth phase consisted of survey questionnaire from two hindered youth and adult households with in the right zones of Railton. The Si xth Phase was the Photo-story-telling, which focused on getting photo-documentary on historical site or events and community assetsRead MoreSchool Programs For Empowering The Youth910 Words   |  4 PagesAfter School Programs for Empowering the Youth The wide spectrum of Los Angeles County has as much variety as tourist sites, as told by the media on one end. However, on the other end, unfortunately Los Angeles County also consists of highly disorganized cities and high-crime areas. Cities like Huntington Park and Compton are considered deviant places as described by Siegel (2011) because they are â€Å"poor, densely populated, and highly transient neighborhoods† (p. 71). Therefore, making these communitiesRead MoreSweet Dreams - Cookies And Coffee For A Cause Project Proposal1684 Words   |  7 Pagesissues that plague poor inner city neighborhoods like violence and graduations rates. Moreover, too often the parent(s) or guardians of the youth in the neighborhood do not or cannot give guidance on how to move out of poverty through education, work experiences, and/or mentoring, too often continuing the cycle of generational poverty. Nationally the youth unemployment rate is double that of the national average. It is even worse for teens of color and teens from low-income houses. In 2014, 21Read MoreKenya And The Kenyan Police Force1674 Words   |  7 Pagesde-radicalization initiatives. Secondly, Socio-Economic and Political Marginalization of Muslim Communities. Currently, Kenyan youths account for 70% of the total unemployment rates in the entire country. It is argued that the rapidly growing youth population in Kenya has been associated with a strong sense of political and socio-economic marginalization. The frustrations among youths in the communities serve as the major driving force to engage in extremism behaviors. Kenya is mainly dominated by ChristiansRead MoreEvidence-Based Practices For Youth Offenders1343 Words   |  6 Pages which is preserved by the United States’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), provide a list of all evidence-based practices that are beneficial for youth offenders (SAMHSA, 2017). Per SAMHSA (2017), between 50-70 percent of the youth in the juvenile justice system, have a mental disorder and up to 60 percent have been diagnosed with a substance use disorder (SAMHSA, 2017). Of those youth with dual diagnosis, approximately 30 percent have lost the ability to functionRead MoreProviding Quality Career Development And Leadership Programs1524 Words   |  7 PagesProviding Quality Career Development within Youth Development and Leadership Programs Introduction â€Å"What do you want to do for a living?† This is a question dreaded by many young people. The question assumes that youth have had opportunities that are to make an informed decision about their future. As a youth service professional or someone volunteering his or her time with youth, you might be wondering how you can support youth to think about their futures, and provide them with concrete informationRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of School Funding938 Words   |  4 PagesLearners, foster youth, and disadvantaged (special needs and/or socio-economic). LCFF was beneficial to districts that had a higher count of students fitting in these categories. Not only that, the LCFF was implemented to simplify California’s finance system. Prior to LCFF, California has relied on general funding along with categorical programs. Under LCFF, each district creates an LCAP (Local Control Accountability Plan). This plan serves to offer a description of district’s goals for the fiscalRead MoreEmployee Engagement Of Long Term Unemployed1216 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction This paper will expand on the previous research on examining employee engagement of Long-Term Unemployed (LTU) and the engagement issues surrounding the unemployed and employment services. In expanding on previous work, this paper will explore how the issues of social relations, perceptions and engagement affect the interactions between employers, the unemployed and employment services agencies. The paper will draw on research literature and the Kangaroo Island Workskil office asRead MoreCombatting the Crime and Violence in the Inner City of Kingston, Jamaica1284 Words   |  6 Pagesviolence, education gap and unemployment have significantly affected the youths. The scourge of crime and violence reportedly scarred the inner city youths, hence the NCB Foundation sought to avert some of those challenges. It has since helped by contributing to the improvement of the lives of those most vulnerable and at-risk youths. Therefore, the intention of this study is to assess the contributions of the NCB Foundation on youth in the community of Denham Town. Definition/Conceptualization

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Hindsight Bias free essay sample

Hindsight bias is when you know something right after it happens and not while it is happening. Some people call it the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon. This is where you watch a sports game and when the game is over, think to yourself that you knew they would loose, when in fact you were on the edge of your seat waiting to see how the game was going to end and if your team would win or not. (Myers, 2010, p. 16. ) I have had several instances where hindsight bias has happened to me. Some of the more emorable and favorite moments of it have been with my dad and the girls I have dated. See there was this one girl that I tried to date while I lived in Florida last year. Her name was Crystal and she was very nice, and after a while I told my parents about her and my dad told me to be careful like most parents do. We will write a custom essay sample on Hindsight Bias or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page After a few weeks of trying to get her to go on an actual date with me as more than friends, her and I had a heart to heart about where we stood. To my dislike we wouldn’t be more than friends, but I was ok with that because I didn’t want to loose her as a riend. But it was when I told my dad about this that he told me he had a feeling that this wasn’t going to work out, and that I shouldn’t have tried to pursue her in that way. There is an even better example of this involving my dad and my last girlfriend that is a better demonstration of hindsight bias. For 6 months before I decided to move back up to New Hampshire to take some classes I got involved with this girl named Destiny. I was really excited about her, we clicked on several levels. We had a good deal in common and we really enjoyed ach others company. I had even taken her home with me for the holidays to meet my parents. I asked my family how they liked her and everyone said that they liked her and they were glad I was so happy. I even took my dad aside and talked to him about her and about some of the issues she had had with her family and the conversation about my new girlfriend went very well. The relationship ended badly with her breaking up with me for several reasons that were her own doing and had nothing to do with what I had done, and I had no idea what to do or how o deal with it, so as I made my preparations to move back home. It wasn’t until I got back home that my dad told me that he knew it wasn’t going to end well. I even told him that when he knows these things that he is supposed to tell me right away when they are not going to end well that way I don’t get involved with them in the first place. It wasn’t until this class that I discovered the reason he knows that my relationships are going to end badly is because he has I-Knew-it-all-along phenomenon or better named hindsight ias. Its not that he actually knows they are going to end at all, he is just able to put everything together at the very moment that I tell him things have ended. I have several other examples of hindsight bias but these two were the most recent in my mind an d I also found them to be the funnier ones because I had this very conversation with my dad only a few weeks ago regarding him telling me when he gets these â€Å"feelings†.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

Is Music a Luxury or Necessity Essay Example

Is Music a Luxury or Necessity? Essay Music Is Indeed a luxury but also an importance of survival. Many people who will go through tough times will listen music to keep them calm or even take them away to a fantasy world. I believe music is necessary to survival considering the amount of musicians in the world,if music was suddenly gone the world would seem very bleak and boring with no seeming light. Music can convey every single emotion and other topics such as ,Sadness, angry, happy, curious, funny. As someone who constantly is plugged in to my ipod, Cd player, or constantly playing music whenever i can it would appear to be a necessity to me. If you do the math, I would say I spend upwards of 18% of my time reading, writing, playing, or listening to music. Thats a huge number considering we spend 30% of our time sleeping. Those numbers, however, are misleading: We often multi-task while listening to music. It makes chores like homework and cleaning almost enjoyable. In fact, music makes my life in general much more tolerable, which in itself is an argument supporting it being a necessity. But do we really need music to survive? Its obvious it doesnt provide food or shelter. There are people out there who never listen to music, either because they dont have the chance or because they get no enjoyment from it. I dont think I could go a day without listening to music. Even as im writing this im listening right now. The key word is think. I get stressed if I havent listened to music in a couple days. It calms and soothes, stirs and inspires. It is intensely personal, yet can unite large groups of diverse people. Music offers an escape from reality, taking me back to precise moments in my life or forward to moments I hope to experience. We will write a custom essay sample on Is Music a Luxury or Necessity? specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Is Music a Luxury or Necessity? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Is Music a Luxury or Necessity? specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The Album The Razors Edge By AC/DC was the first album I ever owned. I still remember buying it and listening to it non-stop I often dream about making music my profession. Whether critiquing or creating, I seem to have a passion for it that most people dont understand. At the same time, however, I want to be a productive member of society. And if music isnt necessary, how can I justify working in the industry? If music would be my profession then it would be a necessity for me to survive. Maybe one justification can be found in people like me. Music has profoundly shaped and altered my life, and for that reason it is valuable. Maybe not necessary, but important nonetheless. its an experience that is different for everyone. I dont believe I could live without music. Certain people say they could drop music all together. But music is part of us. Everything in life has rhythm, from heartbeat to breathing to walking. We all have an innate need for rhythm and music. The part of the brain concerned with music is early to develop and the last to go as we get old. Even elderly people with dementia can appreciate music after they no longer talk. I believe music is a part of all of us, no matter what we do it plays an enormous part in our lives. Music is an expression of our thoughts and emotions. Some people make music, which others can enjoy. Some can only enjoy it. I dont know anyone who doesnt like some kind of music, even if its just tapping a pen on a table. There are so many kinds of music and ways to make music out there to express ourselves; it is almost like a 7th Sense to experience music. We know good music when we hear it. We hear it, and then we feel it. Music connects with our body, our souls, and our lives.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Explain and assess Haidts ‘moral foundations’ theory The WritePass Journal

Explain and assess Haidts ‘moral foundations’ theory Introduction Explain and assess Haidts ‘moral foundations’ theory ) ‘think of this innate organization as being implemented by sets of related modules which work together to guide and constrain responses to each particular problem.’ The final claim is that morality is influenced by cultural learning. This takes places through a set of ‘learning modules’, which are innate and can be used to build on one’s genetic inheritance. For example, the tendency to bow in deference or respect is common to many cultures, but this is adapted to locally-specific cultural contexts and by ‘the time a Hindu girl reaches adulthood, she will have developed culturally-specific knowledge that makes her automatically initiate bowing movements when she encounters, say, a respected politician for the first time.’ In an American household, however, this foundation might be dropped early on. Despite both girls starting off with the ‘same sets of universal learning modules†¦.the universal (and incomplete) first draft of the moral mind gets filled in and revised so that the child can successfully navigate the moral â€Å"matrix† he or she actually experiences.’ Different societies us e different foundations to build their moralities, and some use all of them. MFT, therefore, is an intuitionist theory contending that human moral systems are the combination of innate predispositions and cultural learning. Additionally, judgements are made rapidly on the basis of a plurality of in-built mechanisms, which have been ‘hardwired’ into humans over the course of our species’ evolution. The rest of this essay will present, explain, and assess, in no particular order, the specific foundations postulated by MFT. There are supposedly five or six empirically supported ‘foundations’ for moral judgements, but MFT allows for others being discovered in the future. The first is the care/harm foundation. Human offspring ‘are unusually dependent, and for an unusually long time’ and the intuitive reactions of females have been ‘optimized to detect signs of suffering, distress, or neediness’ for the purpose of raising more offspring. ‘The original triggers of the Care/harm foundation are ‘visual and auditory signs of suffering, distress, or neediness expressed by one’s own child’, but they can be activated by other children, baby animals, stuffed toys with childlike qualities, or descriptions of suffering. This foundation leads to the creation of terms such as ‘kind’ and ‘cruel’, which are valued differently by different cultures (e.g., classical Sparta vs. Buddhist societies). The second is the fairness/cheating foundation. Social animals face non-zero-sum games in which it is advantageous to cooperate. Creatures ‘whose minds are organized in advance of experience to be highly sensitive to evidence of cheating and cooperation, and to react with emotions that compel them to play â€Å"tit for tat†, had an advantage over those who had to figure out their next move using their general intelligence.’ Social partners with reputations for certain types of behaviour are therefore labelled with words such as ‘fair’, ‘just’, and ‘trustworthy’. The third is the loyalty/betrayal foundation. It was advantageous for our ancestors to form cohesive groups when competing for territory and resources. This same behaviour can be seen in troops of chimpanzees. So humans have developed an innate predisposition to form groups. This manifests today in numerous areas, from nationalism to sports and brand loyalty. The fourth is the authority/subversion foundation. Dominance hierarchies are common among many primates, and the ability to recognise and react by forming strategic relationships yielded an evolutionary advantage. Modules of the human mind in this foundation explain why we submit to many useful but constraining societal structures, such as the police force and political leaders. The varied development of this foundation explains why different societies (modern-day China vs. America) or groups (social conservatives vs. liberals) value authority in different ways. The fifth is the sanctity/degradation foundation. Human evolution carried adaptive challenges, such as moving from tree-based to ground-based living, living in larger, denser groups, and eating more meat, some of which was scavenged. This exposed us to a greater number of pathogens and parasites, and we therefore developed a pre-emptory, in-built sensitivity to factors other than the ‘sensory properties of potential foods, friends, and mates.’ ‘Disgust and the behavioral immune system have come to undergird a variety of moral reactions, e.g., to immigrants and sexual deviants’ There are numerous criticisms of MFT, most of which are directed at one of the four main claims undergirding it: nativism, plurality, cultural learning, and intuitionism. One problem with nativism, for example, is that it is difficult to determine the extent to which the mind is ‘hardwired’. As Graham et al., put it: ‘opinions range widely from minimalist positions, which say that there is hardly any writing on the â€Å"first draft† of the mind, to maximalist positions such as massive modularity’ Indeed, the ambiguity here has led some to criticise MFT, and nativism in general, on the grounds that it lacks empirical neuroscientific evidence for the existence of modules. However, this is not reasonable at present. Given that the field is yet to ‘find a set of genes that, collectively, explains 5% of the variance in how tall people are what chance is there that anyone will find a set of genes that code for mental modules (such as loyalty or sanct ity) whose expression is far more subject to cultural influence than is height?’ There is also considerable criticism of the emphasis MFT places on intuitionism. For example, some argue ‘that that intuition and reasoning are best seen as partners in a dance, in which either partner can lead and the other will follow.’ However, whatever the prominent role of reason, this seems misleading at the very least. As has been referenced already in this essay, and as Hume showed in his Treatise, it is not clear how reason can establish the first principles from which logical argument follows. Moral axioms cannot be given a logical foundation, and to the extent that they exist in nature and are ‘hardwired’, they cannot be expressed. Therefore, they are beyond realm of reason by their very nature. To say that reasoning can lead when it is necessarily guided by intuitive first principles is therefore unsupportable. Interesting critiques come from the monists, who disagree with the pluralism hypothesis. Gray et al. believe that the care/harm foundation is the only one that is truly foundational. Graham et al. (2012) call this Procrustean, citing the fact that certain moral judgements, such as disgust, appear not to be accounted for by the care/harm foundation. Their confidence in this matter, however, is arguably misplaced. Disgust over, say, a dirty environment could be seen as a cause of harm. Perhaps those creatures with a predisposition to avoid unclean environments encountered fewer pathogens, for example, or were at less risk of being exposed to small but dangerous creatures such as spiders and snakes. Clearly, emotions, such as disgust, can potentially be explained by the care/harm foundation. The difficulty here arises in attempting to make bold comment about the way our ancestors perceived the links between various phenomena and their effects. While it is possible to argue that matters of disgust have little to do with harm, perhaps there is link that has not yet been discovered. Some critics suggest that there should also be an oppression/liberty foundation. This is the potential sixth foundation being worked on by Haidt. Others point to the fact that MFT might be missing a waste/inefficiency foundation. These critiques focus on the particular pluralisms chosen for MFT. This is really a matter of fine-tuning, rather than any fundamental. This essay has sought to explain and assess Haidt’s MTF. It has emerged that its central claims are extremely well-founded. The SIM has strong roots that date back to the empirical tradition in Britain and which still have not been successfully overturned. With the developments in psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology, both intuitionism and nativism rest on firm foundations. There are philosophical and other objections that can be targeted at the pluralism element of MFT. This is not to say that it is incorrect but rather that the confidence with which the claim is made is not justified. This essay has not sought to address deontological critiques of the MFT. There are those who would argue that MFT is asking the wrong questions, namely what morality is rather than what it should be. However, given that this problem was so adequately dealt with by Hume in his Treatise, it seems appropriate that scholars building on his legacy should develop a descriptive moral the ory instead. Bibliography Berlin, Isaiah, ‘My intellectual path’ in H. Hardy (ed.), The Power of Ideas 1-23, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001 Bruner, Jerome, The process of education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1960 Davis, Jody L.., Rusbult, Caryl, E. ‘Attitude alignment in close relationships’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (2001), pp. 65-84 Edwards, Kari., von Hippel, William, ‘Hearts and minds: The priority of affective versus cognitive factors in person perception’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21 (1995), pp. 996-1011. Graham, Jesse, Haidt, Jonathan, Koleva, Sena., Motyl, Matt., Iyer, Ravi, Wojcik, Sean P. and Ditto, Peter. H, ‘Moral Foundations Theory: The Pragmatic Validity of Moral Pluralism’, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (2012) Gray, Kurt, Young, Liana, and Waytz, Adam, ‘Mind perception is the essence of morality’, Psychological Inquiry, 23, (2012), pp. 101-124 Greenwald, Anthony. G., and Banaji, Mahzarin. R, ‘Implicit social cognition’, Psychological Review, 102, (1995), pp. 4-27 Haidt, Jonathan, The righteous mind: Why good people are divided by politics and religion. New York: Pantheon, 2012 Haidt, Jonathan, ‘The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment’, Psychological Review, Vol. 108. No. 4 (2001), pp. 814-834 Joyce, Richard, The Evolution of Morality, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2005 Mineka, Susan, Cook, M., ‘Social learning and the acquisition of snake fear in monkeys’, in Thomas. R. Zentall John. B. G. Galef (Eds.), Social learning: Psychological and biological perspectives (pp. 51-74). Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988 Narvaez, Darcia, ‘Moral complexity: The fatal attraction of truthiness and the importance of mature moral functioning’, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5 (2010), pp. 163-181 Perkins, David. N., Farady, Mike., Bushey, B., ‘Everyday reasoning and the roots of intelligence’ in Voss, James F., Perkins, David N., and J. W. Segal (Eds.), Informal reasoning and education (pp. 83-105). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991 Skitka, Linda J. ‘The psychological foundations of moral conviction, in Wright, Jennifer and Sarkissian Ryan H (eds) Advances in Moral Psychology (pp.267-281), Bloomsbury Academic Press, 2010 [Accessed 09/03/2014] Suhler, Christopher. L., Churchland, Patricia, ‘Can innate, modular â€Å"foundations† explain morality? Challenges for Haidts moral foundations theory’, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(9) (2011), pp. 2103-2116 Williams, Bernard, ‘Rationalism’ in P. Edwards (Ed.) The encyclopedia of philosophy (Vols. 7-8, pp. 69-75) New York: Macmillan, 1967

Friday, February 21, 2020

Life on Other Worlds Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Life on Other Worlds - Annotated Bibliography Example What implications would it have on the search for extra-terrestrial life if many of these planets were found to exist? What kind of Life? – Although people often talk about â€Å"life† on other worlds, in most cases they are not specific about the kind of life they mean. Usually, however, scholars mean microbial life and the regular public means intelligent life. Conflicting theories: Universe Size – If the universe is infinite, then life must exist elsewhere because an infinite space holds all possibilities. Conflicting theories: Religious perspective – The religious perspective in Western cultures is that the Universe was created for Man alone. Obviously, this has impacted some thinkers and scientists in their belief on intelligent extra-terrestrial life. Conflicting theories: Rare Earth Hypothesis – The Rare Earth hypothesis looks at the conditions not for microbial life, but for a race of intelligent beings with similar technology and cultural levels of achievement to our own. Conflicting theories: Drake Equation – The Drake equation is a mathematical formula used to calculate both the likelihood of extraterrestrials' existence and the likelihood of our being able to contact them. Conclusion – The concluding paragraph will summarize the points raised in previous paragraphs in a way that uses the information presented to support an argument about the search for extra-terrestrial life and the probability that it exists.